Rigid inclusions transfer loads through weak strata to a firm underlying stratum using high modulus, controlled stiffness columns. Hayward Baker's teams are ready to design-build a cost-effective rigid inclusions solution for your project.

Common Uses

  • Increase bearing capacity
  • Decrease settlement

Technical Details

A bottom-feed mandrel with a top-mounted vibrator is advanced through the weak strata to the underlying firm stratum. Granular bearing soils experience some densification due to displacement. Concrete or grout is then pumped through the mandrel. The mandrel may be raised and lowered several times within the bearing depth to construct an expanded base (if required by the design). 

The mandrel is then extracted while a positive concrete head is maintained. The concrete fills the void created by the mandrel during extraction. The top of the inclusion typically terminates in a strong stratum or is overlain by an engineered relieving platform. The improved performance is due to the reinforcement of the compressible strata with the high modulus columns.